Monday, January 31, 2005

Mammal, Populations

A population consists of individuals of three “ecological ages”—prereproductive, reproductive, and postreproductive. The structure and dynamics of a population depend, among other things, on the relative lengths of these ages, the rate of recruitment of individuals (either by birth or by immigration), and the rate of emigration or death. The reproductive potential


First of the great medieval trading empires of western Africa (fl. 7th–13th century). It was situated between the Sahara (Desert) and the headwaters of the Sénégal and Niger rivers, in an area that now comprises southeastern Mauritania and part of Mali. Ghana was populated by Soninke clans of Mande-speaking people who acted as intermediaries between the Arab and Berber

Saturday, January 29, 2005


Any of three isomeric dimethylbenzenes [which have the same chemical formula, C6H4(CH3)2, but different molecular structure], used as solvents, as components of aviation fuel, and as raw materials for the manufacture of dyes, fibres, and films. The three isomers, designated ortho (o), meta (m), and para (p), differ structurally only in the location of the methyl groups. All three are

Friday, January 28, 2005


Town, Honolulu county, on Laie Bay, northeastern Oahu Island, Hawaii, U.S. The land was acquired by Mormon missionaries in 1864 and settled by a colony of Hawaiian Mormons. The impressive white Laie Temple, where the highest rites of the Mormon church can be performed, was built (1919) on the site of an ancient Hawaiian “city of refuge” (a sanctuary for the pursued). The Polynesian Cultural

Wednesday, January 26, 2005

Bonaparte, (marie-anne-)élisa

She was married on May 1, 1797, to Félix Baciocchi, a member of a Corsican noble family. Napoleon gave her the principality of Piombino in March 1805 and the principality of Lucca in the following June and finally, in March 1809, made her grand duchess of Tuscany. Her pride and ability had great

Tibet, Agriculture and forestry

The staple crops are barley, wheat, and pulses; other important crops include millet, buckwheat, rgya-bra (a grain similar to buckwheat), beans, hemp, and mustard. Butter from the yak (large, long-haired ox) or the mdzo-mo (a crossbreed of the yak and the cow) is the main dairy product. The diet is supplemented by a variety of garden vegetables. Some rice is raised in the southeast.

Tuesday, January 25, 2005


Bill Flanagan, U2 at the End of the World (1995), is an insightful, if frequently meandering, critical overview.

Vignola, Giacomo Da

After studying in Bologna, Vignola went to Rome in the 1530s and made drawings of the antiquities for a projected edition of Vitruvius' treatise

Sunday, January 23, 2005


Celtic fortified site overlooking the Danube River in Baden-Württemberg Land (state), Germany. Recent excavations have shown that the Heuneburg fort community carried on a prosperous trade with the Greeks at Massilia (Marseille) during the 6th century BC. Imported Greek black-figure pottery and Massiliote wine amphorae have been uncovered. Mediterranean influence


In Greek mythology, a giant of Libya, the son of the sea god Poseidon and the Earth goddess Gaea. He compelled all strangers who were passing through the country to wrestle with him. Whenever Antaeus touched the Earth (his mother), his strength was renewed, so that even if thrown to the ground, he was invincible. Heracles, in combat with him, discovered the source of his strength

Friday, January 21, 2005

Fenech Adami, Eddie

After graduating from the University of Malta, Fenech Adami practiced law beginning in 1959, and from 1962 to 1969 he was the editor of a weekly newspaper. He ran unsuccessfully for the House of Representatives (parliament) in 1962 and 1966 but was appointed to a seat in 1969 upon the death of a Nationalist

Thursday, January 20, 2005


Loreto lies almost entirely in the Amazonian rain forest at an average elevation of about 500 ft (152 m). The climate is hot and humid, with heavy rainfall. The Ucayali River

Wednesday, January 19, 2005

Apra Harbor

Also called  Port Apra,   port on the west coast of Guam, Mariana Islands, western Pacific. It is the best anchorage on the island and is located just west of Agana. It is the port of entry and site of a U.S. naval base. With 2,400 feet (730 m) of frontage for deepwater docking, it is a transshipment point for various Micronesian islands. The harbour, which is protected (south) by Orote Peninsula and (north) by Cabras


Also called  Chaetognath,   any member of the invertebrate phylum Chaetognatha, a group of small wormlike marine animals with transparent to translucent or opaque arrow-shaped bodies. The phylum consists of about seven extant genera and one fossil genus. There are more than 50 species, most of which are in the genus Sagitta. The size of arrowworms ranges from about 3 millimetres to more

Sunday, January 16, 2005

Weber, Carl Maria Von

In full  Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst, Freiherr (baron) Von Weber  German composer and opera director during the transition from Classical to Romantic music, noted especially for his operas Der Freischütz (The Freeshooter, 1821), Euryanthe (1823), and Oberon (1826). Der Freischütz, the most immediately and widely popular German opera that had then been written, established German Romantic

Saxe, (hermann-) Maurice, Comte De

The illegitimate son of the elector Frederick Augustus I of Saxony (later also King Augustus II of Poland), young Maurice was sent by his father to serve under Prince Eugene of Savoy against the French in Flanders

Saturday, January 15, 2005

Aytmatov, Chingiz

Aytmatov achieved major literary recognition with his collection of short stories, Povesti gor i stepey (1963; Tales of Mountains and Steppes), for which he was awarded the Lenin Prize in 1963. His most important works

Wednesday, January 12, 2005

Eastern Africa, History Of, The Solomonids

An amalgamated Christian state, led by Semitized Agew, had reappeared in the 12th century. This Zagwe dynasty gave way in the late 13th century to a dynasty that claimed descent from King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, a genealogy providing the legitimacy and continuity so honoured in Ethiopia's subsequent national history. During the 14th and 15th centuries the Solomonid

Andrea Da Firenze

Andrea studied at the Arte dei Medici e degli Speziali in Florence. At the end of 1365 he was commissioned to decorate the chapter house of the church of Sta. Maria Novella. Also attributed to him are the decorations in the Spanish chapel and

Tuesday, January 11, 2005

Janequin, Clément

He worked in Bordeaux in the service of Lancelot du Fau, who became bishop of Luçon, and later for the bishop of Bordeaux. He entered the priesthood and in 1525 became canon of St. Emilion.

Monday, January 10, 2005


City, San Diego county, southern California, U.S. It lies along the Pacific Ocean just south of Oceanside, in a winter vegetable- and flower-growing district. Settled in the 1870s, it was first called Frazier's Station but was renamed (1883) when its mineral waters were found to be similar to those of Carlsbad in Bohemia (now Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic). After the arrival (1885) of the Santa

Sunday, January 09, 2005

Janequin, Clément

Founded in New York City in 1976 as little more than a social club, the charter organization of the AWU grew into a major clearinghouse and support agency for Asian and Pacific American women in the United States. Having absorbed several scattered

Lutheran Church In Württemberg

Independent Lutheran church established in the duchy of Württemberg in 1534 during the Protestant Reformation in Germany. A strong Lutheran church throughout the centuries, it was influenced in the 17th and 18th centuries by Pietism, the Lutheran-based movement that emphasized personal religious experience and reform. It became independent of the state after Germany

Friday, January 07, 2005

Chrestien, Florent

The son of Guillaume Chrestien, an eminent physician and writer on physiology, he became a pupil of Henri Estienne, the Hellenist, at an early age. Later, he was appointed tutor to Henry of Navarre, afterward Henry IV of France, who made him his librarian.

Daguerre, Louis-jacques-mandé

French painter and physicist who invented the daguerreotype (q.v.), the first practical process of photography. Though the first permanent photograph from nature was made in 1826/27 by Joseph-Nicéphore Niepce of France, it was of poor quality and required about eight hours' exposure time. The process that Daguerre developed

Wednesday, January 05, 2005

Arts, East Asian, Painting

Painting of the Kamakura period, both religious and secular, was marked by a sense of immediacy and vitality. The Amidist sects spawned cults that emphasized devotion to particular intercessory figures who had initially been considered ancillary in the overall Pure Land Buddhist pantheon. For example, the Jizo Bosatsu, the bodhisattva depicted in the guise of

Tuesday, January 04, 2005

World War Ii, Yalta

Roosevelt's last meeting with Stalin and Churchill took place at Yalta, in the Crimea, Feb. 4–11, 1945. The conference is chiefly remembered for its treatment of the Polish problem: the western Allied leaders, abandoning their support of the Polish government in London, agreed that the Lublin committee—already recognized as the provisional government of Poland by the Soviet

Monday, January 03, 2005

Eastern Orthodoxy, Theological and monastic renaissance

Paradoxically, the pitiful history of Byzantium under the Palaeologan emperors coincided with an astonishing intellectual, spiritual, and artistic renaissance that influenced the entire Eastern Christian world. The renaissance was not without fierce controversy and polarization. In 1337 Barlaam the Calabrian, one of the representatives of Byzantine Humanism,

Sunday, January 02, 2005


The first experimental turboprop aircraft, a modified Gloster Meteor fighter equipped with two Rolls-Royce