Friday, December 31, 2004


Plural  Acroteria,   in architecture, decorative pedestal for an ornament or statue placed atop the pediment of a Greek temple; the term has also been extended to refer to the statue or ornament that stands on the pedestal. Originally a petal-shaped ornament with incised pattern, such as the honeysuckle, was placed on the ridge and at the eaves at either side of the pediment. Later this ornamentation


Amritsar was founded in

Wednesday, December 29, 2004

Cambon, Jules

Educated in law, Cambon entered the prefectorial administration after service in the Franco-German War (1870–71). In June 1878 he was


In full  Hanau Am Main,   city, Hesse Land (state), central Germany, a port on the right bank of the canalized Main at the mouth of the Kinzig, east of Frankfurt am Main. The old town grew up around the castle of the lords of Hanau (counts from 1429) and was chartered in 1303; the new town was founded in 1597 for Protestant Dutch and Walloon refugees. Hanau passed to Hesse-Kassel in 1736. In 1813 it was the scene of a battle between

Tuesday, December 28, 2004

Mitchell River

River in northern Queensland, Australia. It rises near Rumula on the Atherton Plateau section of the Eastern Highlands, 30 miles (48 km) northwest of Cairns, and flows for 350 miles (560 km) northwest across Cape York Peninsula to the Gulf of Carpentaria. Although the stream, fed by the Palmer, Walsh, and Lynd rivers, has the state's largest discharge, it is intermittent and may be dry for

Monday, December 27, 2004

Argentina, Alfonsín's administration

Soon after his inauguration in December 1983, Alfonsín reversed legislation passed under Bignone by announcing plans to prosecute several members of the defunct military government, including former presidents Videla, Viola, and Galtieri. He also repealed a law granting amnesty to those accused of crimes and human rights violations during the Dirty War, and hundreds

Sunday, December 26, 2004


Mistress of the Athenian statesman Pericles and a vivid figure in Athenian society. Although Aspasia came from the Greek Anatolian city of Miletus and was not a citizen of Athens, she lived with Pericles from about 445 until his death in 429. Because a law sponsored by Pericles in 451 required that for a person to be a citizen both parents must be citizens, their son,

Saturday, December 25, 2004

Lagoon Nebula

(catalog numbers NGC 6523 and M8), ionized-hydrogen region located in the constellation Sagittarius at 1,200 parsecs (3,900 light-years) from the solar system. The nebula is a cloud of interstellar gas and dust approximately 10 parsecs (33 light-years) in diameter. A group of young, hot stars in the cloud ionize the nearby gas. As the atoms in the gas recombine, they produce the light emitted by

Friday, December 24, 2004

Bienville, Jean-baptiste Le Moyne De

Jean-Baptiste was the eighth son of Canadian pioneer Charles Le Moyne. He entered the French navy at age 12 and served with his noted elder brother, Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville, in naval engagements (1696–97) in Hudson Bay and the North Atlantic during

Thursday, December 23, 2004

Novi Sad

German  Neusatz,  Hungarian  Újvidék,   city and administrative capital of the ethnically mixed autonomous region of Vojvodina, Serbia, Yugoslavia. It is a transit port on the heavily trafficked Danube River northwest of Belgrade and is also situated on the Belgrade-Budapest rail line. The Backa canal system connects with the Danube at Novi Sad, which is the economic and cultural focus for northern Vojvodina.

Tuesday, December 21, 2004

Rydberg, Johannes Robert

Educated at the University of Lund, Rydberg received his bachelor's degree in 1875 and his doctorate in mathematics in 1879. He became lecturer in physics there in 1882 and assistant at the Physics Institute in 1892. He was permanent professor of physics from 1901 until his retirement in


Town, Bundesland (“federal state”) Niederösterreich, northeastern Austria. It lies at the confluence of the Danube and Melk rivers, west of Sankt Pölten. The town was the site of a Roman garrison and was the castle-residence of the Babenberg rulers of Austria from 976 to 1101. The castle and surrounding lands were given in 1111 to the huge Benedictine abbey of Melk (founded in 1089), which dominates

Monday, December 20, 2004


(Turkish: “Black Hill”), site of a Late Hittite fortress city, located in the piedmont country of the Taurus Mountains in south-central Turkey. The city, dating from the 8th century BC, was discovered in 1945 by Helmuth T. Bossert and Halet Çambel. It was built with a polygonal fortress wall and an upper and lower gateway of monumental proportions. The gate chambers are lined with inscribed

Vyshinsky, Andrey Yanuaryevich

Vyshinsky, a member of the Menshevik branch of the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party since 1903, became a lawyer in 1913 and joined the Communist Party in 1920. While teaching at Moscow State University and practicing

Saturday, December 18, 2004

Hyde, Sir Nicholas

Sir Nicholas entered Parliament in 1601 and soon became prominent as an opponent of the court of James I, though he does not appear to have distinguished himself in the law. Before long, however, he deserted the popular party, and in 1626 he was employed by George Villiers, duke of Buckingham, in his defense to impeachment

Friday, December 17, 2004


Any heavily armed and armoured combat vehicle that moves on two endless metal chains called tracks. Tanks are the principal type of armoured vehicle. Other major types include tracked and wheeled infantry carriers, which were conceived only for transporting troops into action but which also have been used to some extent for fighting; armoured cars, which often

Thursday, December 16, 2004

Turkey, The southern folded zone

The southern folded zone occupies the southern third of the country from the Aegean to the Gulf of Iskenderun, from which it extends to the northeast and east around the northern side of the Arabian platform. Over most of its length, the Mediterranean coastal plain is narrow, but there are two major lowland embayments. The Antalya Plain extends inland some 20 miles from

Mountain, The Himalayan chain

The easternmost segment of the system begins at the western end of the Sunda island arc and continues into the arcuate chain of mountains that constitute the Himalayas, which contain the highest peaks on Earth. This chain was formed as the Indian subcontinent, a passenger on the same plate that currently underthrusts the Sunda arc, collided with the southern margin

Tuesday, December 14, 2004


Ancient Greek goddess of sexual love and beauty, identified by the Romans with Venus (q.v.). Because the Greek word aphros means “foam,” the legend arose that Aphrodite was born from the white foam produced by the severed genitals of Uranus (Heaven), after his son Cronus threw them into the sea. Aphrodite was, in fact, widely worshiped as a goddess of the sea and of seafaring; she

Monday, December 13, 2004

Biblical Literature, The documentary hypothesis

Beyond these obvious discrepancies, modern literary analysis and criticism of the texts has pointed up significant differences in style, vocabulary, and content, apparently indicating a variety of original sources for the first four books, as well as an independent origin for Deuteronomy. According to this view, the Tetrateuch is a redaction primarily of three

Sunday, December 12, 2004

Zaghlul, Sa'd

Zaghlul was from a well-to-do peasant family in Ibyanah in the Nile River delta. He was educated at the Muslim University of Al-Azhar in Cairo and at the Egyptian

Saturday, December 11, 2004

Insurance, Eastern Europe

After the breakup of the Soviet Union, countries in eastern Europe developed insurance systems of considerable variety, ranging from highly centralized and state-controlled systems to Western-style ones. Because of recent political and economic upheavals in these countries, it seems likely that the trend will be toward decentralized, Western-style

Thursday, December 09, 2004

Agassiz, Elizabeth Cabot

Elizabeth Cary was related to many of Boston's leading families. She received no formal schooling but acquired a somewhat haphazard education at home. In April 1850 she married the distinguished and recently


Greek  Seuthopolis,   town, central Bulgaria. It lies in the Kazanluk basin, 2 miles (3 km) north of the Tundzha River. The area is famous for its roses, which are made into attar of roses for the perfume industry. This industry, which developed in the 17th century, now uses approximately 20,000 acres (8,000 hectares) and includes the growing of lavender, peppermint, and pyrethrum. The town is an ancient craft centre;

Wednesday, December 08, 2004


In full  San Antonio De Ibarra,   city, north-central Ecuador, situated in an Andean valley at an elevation of 7,300 feet (2,200 m), within the Ecuadorian Lake District. It was founded in 1606 by the soldier Cristóbal Torre, a representative of Miguel de Ibarra, the president of the royal audiencia of Quito (a judicial–legislative body), and was named for him. Though largely destroyed by an earthquake in 1868, it has retained much

Tuesday, December 07, 2004

New Age Movement

Movement that spread through the occult and metaphysical religious communities in the 1970s and '80s. It looked forward to a “New Age” of love and light and offered a foretaste of the coming era through personal transformation and healing. The movement's strongest supporters were followers of modern esotericism, a religious perspective that is based on the acquisition

Monday, December 06, 2004


Capital may be so broadly defined as to include all possible material, nonmaterial, and human inputs into a productive system, but it is usually more useful to confine the

Sunday, December 05, 2004

Chekiang, Cultural life

During the Nan (Southern) Sung dynasty (1127–1279) the political and cultural centre of China moved from the North to western Chekiang. The Hang-chou area became the homeland of a galaxy of famous painters (including a Sung emperor), as well as of calligraphers, poets, essayists, philosophers, and historians. The beauty of Lin-an (modern Hang-chou), the Nan Sung capital, was immortalized

Saturday, December 04, 2004


Town, Sindh province, southern Pakistan. The town lies just west of the Indus River, about 100 miles (160 km) north-northwest of Hyderabad. A distribution centre, it is connected by road and rail with Hyderabad, Karachi, and Quetta. Dadu has men's and women's government colleges that are affiliated with the University of Sindh. The area in which Dadu is situated is a fertile alluvial

Crusca Academy

Founded by five members of the

Thursday, December 02, 2004

Literature, Latin America.

In 2001 many works explored Latin America's past and present social and political realities as well as offering variations on the theme of love. From Mexico, writer Carlos Fuentes returned to fantastic literature and to the theme of love's difficulties in Instinto de Inez. In La piel del cielo, Elena Poniatowska,

Wednesday, December 01, 2004


Judet (county), southwestern Romania, occupying an area of 1,835 sq mi (4,754 sq km). The county, consisting mostly of lowlands, was formed in 1981 from portions of Ialomita and Ilfov districts. The Danube River, flowing northeastward, marks the county's eastern border; and the Borcea, Barza, and Dâmbovita rivers, tributaries of the Danube, drain southward. The Mostistea and Galatui lakes lie in the