Monday, November 29, 2004


Mars's festivals at Rome occurred in the spring and the

Iran, Ancient, Mithradates II

The reign of Mithradates II, from 123 to 88 BC, constitutes the most glorious chapter of Parthian history. It put an end to the ambitions of Artabanus's son Himerus, left by his father as governor of Mesopotamia, and brought Hyspaosines, king of Mesene (Characene), who had extended his possessions too far toward the north, back into submission. In the east the Saka were on the move—soon

Saturday, November 27, 2004


Cumberland lies along the northwest coast of England, facing the Solway

Canary Creeper

Also called  Canarybird Flower, Canarybird Vine, or Canary Nasturtium  (species Tropaeolum peregrinum), annual climbing herb, of the family Tropaeolaceae, native to northwestern South America and introduced to other regions as a cultivated garden plant. It grows to a height of 1.8–3 m (6–10 feet). The leaves are round and deeply five-lobed. The flowers, about 2.5 cm (1 inch) across, are pale yellow and have a long, green spur.

Friday, November 26, 2004

San Francisco Conference

The conference was attended by delegations from the 46 nations that had signed

Referendum And Initiative

The referendum may be obligatory or optional. Under the obligatory type, a statute or constitution requires that certain classes of legislative action be referred to a popular vote for approval or rejection. For

Wednesday, November 24, 2004

Sculpture, Primary

Throughout history, stone has been the principal material of monumental sculpture. There are practical reasons for this: many types of stone are highly resistant to the weather and therefore suitable for external use; stone is available in all parts of the world and can be obtained in large blocks; many stones have a fairly homogeneous texture and a uniform hardness


City, seat of Rice county, southeastern Minnesota, U.S., at the confluence of the Cannon and Straight rivers, in a mixed-farming and lake area, 53 mi (85 km) south of St. Paul. Established in 1826 as a fur-trading post by Alexander Faribault (whose house [1853] still stands), it was the centre for the Indian missions of Henry B. Whipple, first Episcopal bishop of Minnesota, who organized Seabury Divinity

Sunday, November 21, 2004

Christian, Barbara

Educated at Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (B.A., 1963), and Columbia University, New York City (M.A., 1964; Ph.D., 1970), Christian taught at the City College of the City University of New York (1965–72) and

Biblical Literature, Gospels

A few papyrus fragments come from gospels not known by name (e.g., Egerton Papyrus 2, Oxyrhynchus Papyrus 840, Strasbourg Papyrus 5–6). There are also the Gospel produced in the 2nd century by Marcion (a “semi-Gnostic” heretic from Asia Minor), who removed what he regarded as interpolations from the Gospel According to Luke; the lost Gnostic Gospel of Perfection; and the Gospel of

Saturday, November 20, 2004

Breasted, James Henry

After graduate studies at Yale and Berlin, Breasted began teaching Egyptology at the University of Chicago in 1894. He compiled a record of every known Egyptian hieroglyphic inscription and

Friday, November 19, 2004

Epistemology, Description versus justification

Epistemology during its long history has engaged in two different sorts of tasks. One of these is descriptive in character. It aims to depict accurately certain features of the world, including the contents of the human mind, and to determine whether these should count as specimens of knowledge. A philosophical system with this orientation is, for example, the phenomenology

Thursday, November 18, 2004

Møller, Poul Martin

Danish author whose novel of student life, the first in his country's literature that dealt with the contemporary scene, marked an important stage in the history of Danish literature. His aphorism, “All poetry that does not come from life is a lie,” sums up his realistic approach in a romantic age. He is also distinguished

Wednesday, November 17, 2004

Prokop The Bald

Initially Prokop was a conservative (Utraquist) priest, but then he joined the heretical religious movement that had sprung from the teachings of the martyred Bohemian Reformer Jan Hus (d. 1415). Prokop effectively defended Hussite

Tuesday, November 16, 2004

Møller, Poul Martin

Armoured North American dinosaur of the Late Cretaceous Period (99 million to 65 million years ago). Like its close relative Ankylosaurus and the more distantly related Nodosaurus, Euoplocephalus was a massive animal that likely weighed more than two tons. Euoplocephalus differed from these and most other ankylosaurs in having a bone that protected the eyelid. The

Monday, November 15, 2004


Deepwater port, northwestern Gabon, on the north shore of the Gabon Estuary; it serves the national capital, Libreville (9 miles [15 km] north-northwest), and was designed to handle ore vessels. It has a seaplane base and road connections with Libreville, Cocobeach, Médouneu, and Kango. In 1978 the first 115-mile (185-kilometre) segment of the Trans-Gabon Railway was opened, linking Owendo

Saturday, November 13, 2004

Aiken, Conrad

In full  Conrad Potter Aiken  American Pulitzer Prize-winning poet, short-story writer, novelist, and critic whose works, influenced by early psychoanalytic theory, are concerned largely with the human need for self-awareness and a sense of identity. Aiken himself faced considerable trauma in his childhood when he found the bodies of his parents

Kuchma, Leonid

After graduating from Dnipropetrovsk State University in 1960, Kuchma embarked on a career as an engineer, serving as Communist

Friday, November 12, 2004

Motion Picture, History Of The, Great Britain

In Great Britain the post-World War II cinema was even more literary than in France, relying heavily on the adaptation of classics in the work of such directors as Laurence Olivier (Henry V, 1944; Hamlet, 1948; Richard III, 1955), David Lean (Great Expectations, 1946; Oliver Twist, 1948), and Anthony Asquith (The Importance of Being Earnest, 1952). Even less-conventional films had literary sources (Carol

Wednesday, November 10, 2004

Drug, Antacids

Excess acid may be neutralized in the stomach with antacid tablets. The main constituents of antacids are aluminum and magnesium hydroxides. There are three side effects of antacid therapy, which depend on the compound used. First, many have an action on the bowel: some have a mild laxative effect, and some are constipating. Second, if the positively charged compounds

Tuesday, November 09, 2004

Arabic Literary Renaissance

After the Napoleonic invasion of Egypt (1798) and the subsequent establishment of an autonomous and Western-minded ruling dynasty there, many Syrian and Lebanese writers sought out the freer environment of Egypt, making it

Monday, November 08, 2004

Clifford, Sir Hugh Charles

A descendant of Clifford of the Cabal under Charles II, and a grandson of the 7th Baron Clifford of Chudleigh, Hugh Clifford was expected to follow his father, a distinguished general, into the British Army but decided instead to join

Sunday, November 07, 2004


The hwarang warriors played an instrumental

Saturday, November 06, 2004

Bermuda Race

One of the world's major ocean races for sailing yachts. Originating in 1906, it has been held biennially since 1924 (except during World War II); since 1936 it has covered the 635-nautical-mile (1,176-kilometre) distance from Newport, R.I., U.S., to Bermuda. The race is cosponsored by the Cruising Club of America and the Royal Bermuda Yacht Club, with the winners determined by a handicapping formula.

Friday, November 05, 2004


Judet (county), northwestern Romania. The Western Carpathian Mountains of Romania, including the Ses Mountains, rise above settlement areas in the valleys. The county is drained northwestward by the Somes River and its tributaries. Zalau (q.v.) is the county capital. Metal products, building materials, timber, and foodstuffs are produced in Zalau and Simleu Silvaniei. Lignite

Wednesday, November 03, 2004

Dancourt, Florent Carton

Born into an established bourgeois family, Dancourt was educated in Paris by Jesuits and studied law. In 1680 he married an actress, Thérèse de La Thorillière. They debuted with


Town, southeast coast of Bougainville Island, Papua New Guinea. It is situated on Arawa Bay (Rawa Harbour) and is a port of call with a long wharf for coastal and Australian shipping. The town trades chiefly in copra, cocoa, and small amounts of gold. Two new settlements, Toniva and Nairovi, located just outside of Kieta, are considered part of that town. They grew after an increase

Tuesday, November 02, 2004


City and port, Lower Saxony Land (state), northwestern Germany, on the Jadebusen, a North Sea inlet on the coast of Ostfriesland (East Frisia). Founded in 1853 by Wilhelm I on land bought by Prussia from Oldenburg, it was given its present name in 1869. In 1937 it was united with Rüstringen and returned to Oldenburg Land. As the principal naval base for the Prussian (later German) navy, it suffered

Bezborodko, Aleksandr Andreyevich, Knyaz

Recommended to Catherine by Count P.A. Rumyantsev, with whom he had