Friday, April 30, 2004


City and seaport, Rostov oblast (province), southwestern Russia. It lies on the northern coast of Taganrog Gulf of the Sea of Azov. Founded as a fortress and naval base in 1698 by Peter I the Great, Taganrog developed in the 19th century as a grain-exporting port. Although overshadowed by Rostov-na-Donu, it is still a significant port for the Donets Basin coalfield and industrial

Tuesday, April 27, 2004


In most binoculars, each

Sunday, April 25, 2004

Mitra, Ramon

Philippine politician (b. 1928, Palawan, Phil.—d. March 20, 2000, Manila, Phil.), was a prominent politician, a pro-democracy activist, and an outspoken critic of the 1966–86 regime of Philippine Pres. Ferdinand Marcos. After working as a journalist and diplomat, Mitra served in the House of Representatives in the 1960s and was elected to the Senate in 1971. After Marcos imposed martial law in the Philippines

Friday, April 23, 2004


City, Stark county, northeastern Ohio, U.S., on the Mahoning River, 21 mi (34 km) northeast of Canton. In 1854 the villages of Williamsport, Freedom, and Liberty were incorporated as the village of Alliance, so named for the junction and crossing there of the former New York Central and Pennsylvania railroads. The village of Mount Union (settled in 1833) became a part of Alliance in 1854. Now highly

Wednesday, April 21, 2004


Robert Christgau, Christgau's Record Guide: The '80s (1990), provides provocative discussions of R.E.M.'s albums from Chronic Town (“every so often a chaotic undertow suggests there's more to their romanticism than Spanish moss”) to Green. Christgau struggles with the lack of literary specificity in the band's lyrics, promotes some understanding of their Southern origins, slightly underrates Fables of the Reconstruction while noting that the album “clinches it: their formal frame of reference is folk-rock,” and uses the crucial word to explain R.E.M.'s appeal for a certain sort of rock-based fan and commentator: “reassuring.” Patricia Romanowski, Holly George-Warren, and Jon Pareles (eds.), The New Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll, revised and updated ed. (1995), pp. 826–827, presents a focused and informed narrative of the band's formation, development, and recording history through the Monster album. Mike Mills, “Our Town,” in Clinton Heylin (ed.), The Penguin Book of Rock & Roll Writing (1992), pp. 401–408, is an essay about Athens written in 1985 by R.E.M.'s bassist. The first sentence—“When you mention ‘the Athens scene' to anyone who's been here for four or five years, they get weird”—accurately establishes both the tone and ambition of the piece.

Monday, April 19, 2004


Officially  State of Bahrain,  Arabic  Dawlat Al-Bahrayn   small Arab state in the Persian Gulf. It is an archipelago consisting of Bahrain Island—extending about 30 miles (50 km) from north to south and 10 miles (16 km) from east to west—and some 30 smaller islands. Its Arabic name means “two seas.” Bahrain is situated in a bay on the southwestern coast of the Persian Gulf; Saudi Arabia lies to the west across the Gulf of Bahrain, while the Qatar peninsula

Sunday, April 18, 2004

Thomson, Sir J.j.

In full  Sir Joseph John Thomson   English physicist who helped revolutionize the knowledge of atomic structure by his discovery of the electron (1897). He received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1906 and was knighted in 1908.

Thursday, April 15, 2004

Yamamoto Gonnohyoe, Count

Yamamoto's well-placed political contacts aided his rapid rise in the navy. During the Sino-Japanese War he served as aide-de-camp to general headquarters and in 1898 was appointed minister of the navy in the Japanese cabinet with the rank of vice admiral. Promoted

Sunday, April 11, 2004

Binary Form

In music, the structural pattern of many songs and instrumental pieces, primarily from the 17th to the 19th century, characterized by two complementary, related sections of more or less equal duration that may be represented schematically as ab. In 18th-century compositions, including dance-inspired movements by J.S. Bach and keyboard sonatas by Domenico Scarlatti, the

Saturday, April 10, 2004

Ayyubid Dynasty

Saladin's father, Ayyub (in full, Najm ad-Din Ayyub ibn Shadhi), for whom the Ayyubid dynasty is named, was a member of a family of Kurdish soldiers of fortune who in the 12th century took service under the Seljuq Turkish rulers

Thursday, April 08, 2004

China, Reformist and revolutionist movements at the end of the dynasty

Sun Yat-sen, a commoner with no background of Confucian orthodoxy, educated in Western-style schools in Hawaii and Hong Kong, went to Tientsin in 1894 to meet Li Hung-chang and present a reform program, but he was refused an interview. This event supposedly caused his antidynastic attitude. Soon he went to Hawaii, where he founded an anti-Manchu fraternity called the Hsing-chung

Monday, April 05, 2004

Mesopotamia, History Of, Shalmaneser III and Shamshi-Adad V of Assyria

The son and successor of Ashurnasirpal was Shalmaneser III (858–824). His father's equal in both brutality and energy, he was less realistic in his undertakings. His inscriptions, in a peculiar blend of Assyrian and Babylonian, record his considerable achievements but are not always able to conceal his failures. His campaigns were directed mostly against Syria. While he was

Saturday, April 03, 2004

Human Evolution, Dating the fossils

In the early 1970s a number of new carbon-14 datings gave rise to a radical revision in the then-accepted dating of the African Stone Age. The resulting picture has since been confirmed by a variety of newer methods. Accordingly, the African Middle Stone Age no longer is considered to have begun some 40,000 years ago and ended c. 10,000 years ago but instead to have begun c. 200,000 years ago and ended

Friday, April 02, 2004


Laminated metal produced in sheets composed of a Duralumin (q.v.) core and outer layers of aluminum.

Thursday, April 01, 2004

Croagh Patrick

Irish  Cruach Phádraig  quartzite peak, west of Westport and south of Clew Bay, County Mayo, Ireland. It rises to 2,510 feet (765 m) from a plateau 800–1,100 feet (245–335 m) high. The mountain is said to have been visited by St. Patrick (fl. 5th century), who, according to one authority, began his ministry there. In modern times, Croagh Patrick has become the site of a popular annual pilgrimage on the last Sunday in July, in which many people