Wednesday, March 31, 2004

Jabal Shammar

Mountainous area, northwestern Saudi Arabia, bounded by the regions of Hejaz on the west and Ash-Sharqiyah on the east. The principal features of the region are the two great mountain ranges of Aja' (granites) and Salma (basalts) and the immense rolling sand dunes of An-Nafud. The oasis town of Ha'il is situated on the southern flank of the Aja', while an older capital, Fayd, lies in the

Tuesday, March 30, 2004


In Japan, the unified, crown-appointed aristocracy of the period 1869–1947, which replaced the feudal lords. The kazoku (“flower family”) class was created in 1869 as part of the Westernizing reforms of the Meiji Restoration. In this class the old feudal lords (daimyo) and court nobles (kuge) were merged into one group and deprived of territorial privileges. In 1884 the kazoku was reorganized

Monday, March 29, 2004


In Christian thought, one of the three theological virtues, the others being faith and charity (love). It is distinct from the latter two because it is directed exclusively toward the future, as fervent desire and confident expectation. When hope has attained its object, it ceases to be hope and becomes possession. Consequently, whereas “love never ends,” hope is confined

Sunday, March 28, 2004

Bou Saâda

Town, north-central Algeria. It is located between el-Hodna Depression (a salt lake) and the mountains of the Saharan Atlas. Although north of the Sahara, Bou Saâda is a true oasis, spread along the left bank of the Bou Saâda Wadi and standing in pleasant contrast to the nearby barren Ouled Naïl Mountains and the often dry salt marsh. The town's old walled quarter (ksar) of arched,

Saturday, March 27, 2004

Gundlakamma River

River, east-central Andhra Pradesh state, southern India. The Gundlakamma rises in the Nallamalla Range of the Eastern Ghats. After crossing the mountains, it enters the plains and flows in a northeasterly direction past Markapur to the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal, into which it empties 12 miles (19 km) east of Ongole, after a course of 140 miles (225 km).

Friday, March 26, 2004


Delicate, scallop-shaped French tea cake often served with fruit or sherbet. In its preparation, flour, eggs, and sugar are beaten with a large proportion of butter, incorporating as much air as possible; then grated lemon rind and vanilla extract, and sometimes rum, are added. After baking in the customary 12-shell tin, the pastry is served plain or dusted with confectioner's

Wednesday, March 24, 2004

Caucasian Languages, Vocabulary

The genetic closeness of the Kartvelian languages is evidenced by a large number of structural correspondences and of common lexical (vocabulary) and grammatical items. Though the Kartvelian languages abound in ancient loanwords from Iranian, Greek, Arabic, Turkish, and other languages, it is nevertheless possible to single out the basic vocabulary and grammatical

John, Augustus

John studied at the Slade School of Fine Art in London from 1894 to 1898. By age 20 he had won a reputation as one of the most brilliant draughtsmen in England. His portraits and other paintings done around 1900 gained attention

Monday, March 22, 2004


A genus of 30 or more species of cycads (family Cycadaceae), small, stocky, fern-like plants native to tropical and subtropical America. They have a turniplike, mostly underground stem that in some species reaches 3 m (10 feet) or more in height. A starchy food is obtained from the crushed roots and stems of certain species, among them coontie, or comfortroot (Z. floridana), found in

Raymond, Alex(ander Gillespie)

At 18 Raymond went to work in a brokerage office on New York City's Wall Street, but the stock market crash of 1929 ended his career in finance. He then worked briefly as an assistant to Russ Westover on his strip “Tillie

Saturday, March 20, 2004


Town, seat (1740) of Morris county, north-central New Jersey, U.S., on the Whippany River, 18 miles (29 km) west of Newark. Founded as West Hanover in 1710, when a forge was established to exploit local iron ore, it was renamed in 1740 for Lewis Morris, then governor of the colony. During the American Revolution the area was the winter quarters of the American army in 1779–80, where more than 10,000 troops camped; the


A transition area of vegetation between two different plant communities, such as forest and grassland. It has some of the characteristics of each bordering community and often contains species not found in the overlapping communities. An ecotone may exist along a broad belt or in a small pocket, such as a forest clearing, where two local communities blend together.

Thursday, March 18, 2004

Godard, Benjamin (-louis-paul)

Godard was a child prodigy on the violin, studied composition, and in his youth composed symphonies, chamber works, concerti, and piano music. His best-known opera, Jocelyn (1881), is remembered for its famous “Berceuse.” Other works included the operas Pédro de Zalaméa (1884) and La Vivandière (1895) and his Symphonie

Andrewes, Lancelot

Andrewes was elected a fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge, in 1575 and was ordained a deacon in 1580. His service to several parishes from 1589 was followed by consecration as bishop of Chichester in 1605 and his transfer

Wednesday, March 17, 2004

Permafrost, Air temperature and ground temperature

In areas where the mean annual air temperature becomes colder than 0° C, some of the ground frozen in the winter will not be completely thawed in the summer; therefore, a layer of permafrost will form and continue to grow downward gradually each year from the seasonally frozen ground. The permafrost layer will become thicker each winter, its thickness controlled by

Tuesday, March 16, 2004

Barbary Ape

Also called  Magot  (Macaca sylvana), tailless, terrestrial macaque (q.v.) found in bands in Algeria, Morocco, and on the Rock of Gibraltar. The Barbary ape is about 60 centimetres (24 inches) long and has light yellowish-brown fur and a naked, pale-pink face. It is the only wild monkey in Europe and may have been taken westward during the Muslim Arab territorial expansion of the Middle

Monday, March 15, 2004

France, History Of, The Second Empire, 1852–70

Posterity's image of Napoleon III and his regime has not been uniform. Some historians have seen him as a shallow opportunist whose only asset was a glorious name. Others have described him as a visionary reformer and patron of progress, a man who successfully attempted to reconcile liberty and authority, national prestige and European cooperation. The emperor's

Sunday, March 14, 2004

World War I, Czechs, Yugoslavs, and Poles

Something must now be said about the growth of the national movements, which, under the eventual protection of the Allies, were to result in the foundation of new states or the resurrection of long-defunct ones at the end of the war. There were three such movements: that of the Czechs, with the more backward Slovaks in tow; that of the South Slavs, or Yugoslavs (Serbs, Croats,

Saturday, March 13, 2004


(species Cinnamomum zeylanicum), bushy evergreen tree of the laurel family (Lauraceae) native to Sri Lanka (Ceylon), the neighbouring Malabar Coast of India, and Myanmar (Burma) and also cultivated in South America and the West Indies for the spice consisting of its dried inner bark. The spice is light brown in colour and has a delicately fragrant aroma and warm, sweet flavour.


Also spelled  Baggara  (Arabic: “Cattlemen”), nomad Arabs who have been forced by circumstance to live in a part of Africa that will support the cow but not the camel—south of latitude 13° and north of latitude 10° from Lake Chad eastward to the Nile River. Probably they are the descendants of Arabs who migrated west out of Egypt in the European Middle Ages, turned south from Tunisia to Chad, and finally

Wednesday, March 10, 2004

Xerox Parc

An excellent source on PARC's history is Michael Hiltzick, Dealers of Lightning: Xerox PARC and the Dawn of the Computer Age (1999).

Tuesday, March 09, 2004


Also spelled  Orangoutan,  also called  Orang  (species Pongo pygmaeus), large manlike ape (family Pongidae) that is now restricted to lowland swamp forests in Borneo and a small part of Sumatra. Orangutans formerly lived in the jungles of mainland Southeast Asia as well, and the principal cause of the extreme shrinkage of their range in the last few thousand years seems to have been hunting by

Biblical Literature, Redaction criticism

Redaction criticism concentrates on the end product, studying the way in which the final authors or editors used the traditional material that they received and the special purpose that each had in view in incorporating this material into his literary composition. It has led of late to important conclusions about the respective outlooks and aims of Matthew,

Saturday, March 06, 2004


In the 1250s Qala'un was an early and devoted supporter of the Mamluk commander Baybars, and, after the latter became sultan of Egypt and Syria in 1260, Qala'un's career advanced rapidly. Upon the death of Baybars in 1277, Qala'un quickly deposed and exiled two of Baybars' sons who had briefly succeeded to the sultanate,


In 852 or 853 he called upon Aethelwulf of Wessex to aid him in subduing the North Welsh. The request was granted and the campaign proved successful, the alliance being sealed by the marriage of Burgred to Aethelswith, daughter of Aethelwulf. In 868 the Mercian king appealed to Aethelred and Alfred for assistance

Friday, March 05, 2004

France, History Of, Gaul under the late Roman Empire (c. 250–c. 400)

High Roman Gaul came to an end in an empirewide crisis characterized by foreign invasions and a rapid succession of rulers, as increased pressure on the empire's frontiers exacerbated its internal economic and political weaknesses. Priority was given to holding the Danube and the East; despite sporadic visits by emperors, the West was neglected. In 260 and 276 Gaul suffered

Tuesday, March 02, 2004


The Uighur language is part of the


Ancient West Semitic god of the plague and of the underworld, the companion of Anath, and the equivalent of the Babylonian god Nergal. He was also a war god and was thus represented as a bearded man brandishing an ax, holding a shield, and wearing a tall, pointed headdress with a goat's or gazelle's head on his forehead. Resheph was worshiped especially at Ras Shamra, Byblos,